Breakthrough technologies

To achieve the drastic reductions needed, an entirely new, transformative approach to ironmaking is required, and there are several promising approaches to ironmaking at an industrial scale without the release of CO2.

These fall into three broad categories: carbon, hydrogen and electricity.

Using carbon as a reductant while preventing the emission of fossil CO2, for example using carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) and/or sustainable biomass.


Download fact sheet (596.22 Kb)

Using electrical energy through an electrolysis based process.


Download fact sheet (122.1 Kb)

Substituting hydrogen for carbon as a reductant, generating H2O (water) rather than CO2.


Download fact sheet (186.31 Kb)

Several projects are under development:

Carbon: ArcelorMittal Northern Lights | BAO-CCU | Aço Verde do Brasil | Carbon 2 Chem | Emirates CCSHIsarna | Steelanol | Hydrogen: COURSE50 | HBIS & Tenova | HYBRIT | Novel flash oxide smelting | Salcos | SuSteel | Electricity: Boston Metals | Siderwin | Hydrogen/Electricity: GrinHy | H2FUTURE