Steel facts: Sources and photo credits


Steel facts 2019 - sources:

Note: In all cases where the source is not listed, the facts are sourced from the World Steel Association (worldsteel).

Page 9: Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements.  Oxford:  Oxford University Press, 2001 and John Emsley, The Elements, 3rd edition.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1998.

Page 12-13: White Book of Steel publication, worldsteel, 2012

Page 14: World Steel in Figures 2020, worldsteel

Page 20: Sustainable Steel, Indicators 2020 and steel applications, worldsteel

Page 24: Sustainable Steel, Indicators 2020 and steel applications, worldsteel

Page 32: worldsteel by-product report, 2010

Page 33:

Page 33: Sustainable Steelmaking, Boston Consulting Group, 2009, p 14

Page 34: Energy use in the steel industry, worldsteel 2014

Page 37.1: Water management in the steel industry report, worldsteel 2011

Page 37.2: HBIS Group Co., Ltd 

Page 45: 9, Cambridge Avenue, Slough, UK, sturgis carbon profiling llp

Page 46:

Page 47: The Value of Remanufactured Engines: Life‐Cycle Environmental and Economic Perspectives, Smith, VM. And Keoleian G.A.

Page 51: thyssenkrupp

Page 54: Sustainable Steel, Indicators 2020 and steel applications, worldsteel

Page 67: worldsteel calculation: estimated global revenue from steel-producing entities only; Sustainable Steel, Indicators 2020 and steel applications, worldsteel

Page 69: The role of steel manufacturing in the global economy, Oxford Economics 2019

Page 76:

Pag 78.1e:

Page 78.2: The skyscraper centre, November 2020

Page 77.1: ArcelorMittal calculation

Page 77.2:

Page 79: Allwood J.M., Cullen, UIT Cambridge, 2012

Page 81:

Page 82: ArcelorMittal

Page 83: Allwood J.M., Cullen, UIT Cambridge, 2012

Page 86: Steel Framing Alliance

Page 89: WorldAutoSteel

Page 90: Ford Model T: The Car That Put the World on Wheels, by Lindsay Brooke, 2008

Page 91 - 92: WorldAutoSteel based on the current market situation/

Page 93: WorldAutoSteel, UCSB Model

Page 96:

Page 99:

Page 100: Steel Recycling Institute; APEAL

Page 101 : and thyssenkrupp

Page 102:;

Page 105:

Page 108: Tenaris

Page 109:

Page 111UN Environment Programme, The Emissions Gap Report 2017, page Xvii (reference to 2° scenario)

Page 112:

Page 112:;

Page 113:

Page 117:

Page 119: UIC, High Speed Rail, Fast Track to Sustainable Mobility, 2012

Page 122: Maersk

Page 123.1:

Page 123.2: Bureau of Waterworks, Tokyo Metropolitan Government

Page 125:

Page 126:



Steel facts 2018 - photo credits

Page 10: Musée des Confluences, Lyon, France, copyright: Sergio Pirrone

Page 14: Baotou Iron and Steel (Group) Co., Ltd. -  Worker inspecting steel coils - photography: worldsteel/Shawn Koh

Page 20: POSCO - Wire rods - photography: worldsteel/Seong Joon Cho

Page 22: Baotou Iron and Steel (Group) Co., Ltd. - Rails ready for transportation - photography: worldsteel/Shawn Koh

Page 24: Novolipetsk Steel (NLMK Group) - Storage of heavy plates at NLMK DanSteel - photography: worldsteel/Robert Kolykhalov

Page 25: Angel of the North near Gateshead, Tyne & Wear, England, photography: David Wilson Clarke, Creative Commons via Wikipedia

Page 28-29: Novolipetsk Steel (NLMK Group) - HDG in storage - photography: worldsteel/Robert Kolykhalov

Page 32: POSCO - Ladle - photography: worldsteel/Seong Joon Cho

Page 34: China Steel Corporation

Page 35: The Lanzatech laboratory in Illinois, US

Page 36: voestalpine

Page 37.1: Novolipetsk Steel (NLMK Group) cooling towers

Page 37.2: HBIS Group Co.,Ltd. -  A worker checks the status of water treatment equipment at HBIS Tangsteel, photographer: worldsteel/ Shawn Koh

Page 40: Gerdau - recycling programme

Page 45: 9, Cambridge Avenue, Slough, UK, sturgis carbon profiling llp.

Page 46: Vestas

Page 50: Novolipetsk Steel (NLMK Group)

Page 51.1: Ternium - Overview of the dust collector Ternium Guerrero facility - photography: worldsteel/Hristo Shindov

Page 51.2: thyssenkrupp  - Fabric filter at Duisburg sinter plant 

Page 54Novolipetsk Steel (NLMK Group)

Page 64-65: POSCO - Gwangyang Works

Page 68: POSCO - Quality control technician in the wire rod plant photography: worldsteel/Seong Joon Cho

Page 71:  Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky (TMMK) - Lexus manufacturing

Page 76:

Page 77: IJsselbrug, Hattem-Zwolle bridge, The Netherlands - design: Quist Wintermans Architekten Rotterdam -; photography copyright: Florian Schreiber Fotografie / SSF Ingenieure AG

Page 78: New York Home Insurance Building in Chicago, Illinois, by TonyTheTiger; cropped by Beyond My Ken, 1 October 2012, Creative Commons from Wikimedia Commons

Page 83:

Page 85:

Page 87.1: Production process of billets at NLMK Kaluga, the next-generation EAF mill (NLMK Group)

Page 87.2: World Financial Center Entry Pavilion in New York City, U.S.A provided by Terri Meyer Boake, BES BArch MArch LEED AP, Professor School of Architecture, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Page 90: 1925 Ford Model T touring, built at Henry Ford’s Highland Park Plant in Dearborn, Michigan. This example now resides in Australia, owned by the founder of ; Creative Commons photo by Mitch Taylor.

Page 94-95: Volvo XC40 steel cage (l) and crash test side impact (r)

Page 95: Hyundai Kona Electric Vehicle

Page 96: Chevrolet B Electric Vehicle

Page 100: Steel cans - Photography: Condes

Page 112: Three Gorges Dam, Sandouping, Hubei Province, China by Shizhao - Creative Commons

Page 117: Baotou

Page 125: SSAB

In all cases where the source of the photograph is not listed below, the photos are retrieved from a photo library or from worldsteel's image library (link).