21世纪20年代的钢铁行业

Edwin Basson世界钢铁协会总干事

2020年1月15日

我们进入新的一年,也踏入一个新的时代-21世纪20年代, 全球钢铁行业仍将面临传统的挑战:产能过剩、结构调整和贸易摩擦等。

2020年,大多数地区的钢铁市场需求增长将会放缓。

此外,来自其他方面施加的压力也将变得更加突出。这些压力有哪些?世界钢铁协会将通过开展哪些工作以帮助我们的会员企业应对这些压力呢?

供应链管理和报告将成为我们行业获得经营许可的关键。

Scrap to be melted into new steel in an electric arc furnace at Nucor Steel

社会和下游用户不断要求钢铁行业提高安全、环境和劳工标准方面的透明度和社会责任感。

2019年上半年发生在布鲁玛基纽矿场的溃坝事故,突显出上述工作对钢铁行业的重要性。

为了应对来自客户的压力,建筑、汽车和其他下游用钢行业更加关注钢铁产品是如何制造的、我们从哪里采购原料以及这些原料是如何获取?

事实上,我们也看到了原料供应商希望比以往任何时候都更密切地与我们合作,以向他们的利益相关者表明,我们正在负责任地采购他们的产品。

世界钢铁协会下属可持续发展报告专家组为我们的30个最重要的输入材料及其相关的可持续发展风险制定了一个矩阵,这些风险取决各材料的获取来源。

在新的一年里,我们将扩大在废钢领域的工作范围,随着废钢供应量的增加,以及电弧炉采用废钢炼钢的比例提高,该领域的工作将变得越来越重要。

格蕾塔·桑伯格发起的气候保护活动、反抗灭绝和其他环保活动提高了公众对气候变化的认识。

国际能源署与世界钢铁协会合作已有一段时间,今年将发布钢铁行业技术路线图,该路线图将制定钢铁产量增长与相关的二氧化碳排放脱钩的战略。

钢铁行业作为一个二氧化碳排放难以降低的能源密集型行业,必须清楚地解释为什么全球经济实现脱碳需要大量需要钢铁材料。

主要的原因在于钢铁材料可以100%无限循环利用,此外,我们也要对会员单位开发突破性技术所投入大量资金及工作以实现零碳炼钢进行宣传。

这些技术包括通过可再生氢能还原铁矿石,从而降低对炼焦煤的需求。

尽管这些技术在未来10年里还无法实现商业化,然而,世界钢铁协会携手其会员单位共同发起了“能效升级”项目,在中短期内,利用原料质量、能源效率、可靠性和工艺收得率作为关键性杠杆指标挖掘能源强度的改善潜力,这些工作将有助于降低钢铁行业对气候变化的影响。

钢铁行业在应对这些新挑战方面已取得了显著的成效,但仍有许多工作要做。可喜的是,钢铁行业和钢铁材料在推动社会走向可持续发展已发挥了重要作用。

我代表世界钢铁协会祝愿全体同仁们新年快乐、工作顺利!

  • 1

    Sustainability solutions need to be delivered to the industry.

    avatarnarendra talamarala2020-1-15 17:56:03Reply

  • 2

    A very pertinent article tuned with the time. The issues faced by the steel industry have been brought out very precisely. The recycling of waste particularly the LD sludge is a grave concern. May you kindly provide information about what the steel industry all over world is doing about it. Anubinda Mohanty, DGM, Environment Engg., SAIL- Rourkela

    avatarANUBINDA MOHANTY2020-1-16 15:40:44Reply

  • 3

    Thank you for your comment, Mr Mohanty. You make a good point, although I’m pleased to say that we estimate the steel industry has a 96% material efficiency rate globally, meaning the vast majority of our outputs can be used as inputs for other industrial processes. LD sludge often has a high iron content, so it can be collected and used as an input in steelmaking. I think you will find our position paper on co-products of interest. Best wishes.

    avatarEdwin Basson2020-1-17 12:22:41Reply

  • 4

    Should demand step up it becomes imperative that supply follows in order to establish price equilibrium. However, supply does not simply catapult into the arena with raw material prices at their current levels. The need for value addition comes into consideration. Value addition calls for practices and technologies that encourage recycling. Steel is the fundamental basis of any nation’s development.

    avatarSomjeet Basu Mallik2020-1-16 16:29:28Reply

  • 5

    Thank you for your comment, Mr Mallik. You will find our Short Range Outlooks (SROs) interesting. In October we forecast that steel demand would increase by 3.9% in 2019 to reach 1,775 Mt and would then increase by 1.7% in 2020 to reach 1,805 Mt. We will release an update in April of this year. As to your recycling point, with a 100% and infinitely recyclable material, the steel industry is a world leader here. Best wishes.

    avatarEdwin Basson2020-1-17 12:28:10Reply

  • 6

    Steelmaking is undergoing transformation by the elimination of fossil fuels for green steel technology. This is going to change process parameters while maintaining the basic look of blast furnaces as a symbol of the history of iron making. Similarly, hot metal refining using CO2 as a substitute for oxygen is also a possibility of making use of greenhouse gases and reducing their direct impact on the environment. We should welcome a new era of iron and steelmaking.

    avatarPrakash a Bagga2020-1-17 17:54:37Reply

  • 7

    Thank you for your comment, Mr Bagga. We are indeed entering a new era of steelmaking. It will be interesting to see the technologies develop in the coming years. Bear in mind that the choice of one technology over another will depend on plant configuration and local circumstances. The hydrogen route I mention in the blog may not be appropriate in areas of water scarcity like the Middle East. Carbon capture and storage technologies may be better suited to circumstances there. Best wishes.

    avatarEdwin Basson2020-1-20 10:53:19Reply

  • 8

    Having read some of the comments and the article, do you really think the steel industry is the main carbon pollution driver? I fear that the Gretas and the rebels are choosing the easy targets with governments that are forced to listen rather than ignore. Just take these figures: 1. China (30%), the world's most populated country has an enormous export market, which has seen its industry grow to become a serious danger to the planet. 2. United States (15%), the world's biggest industrial and commercial power. ... 3. India (7%). 4.Russia (5%). 5. Japan (4%). So in the grand scheme of things I think the steel industry is being unfairly targeted. I'm sorry but we are but a small fish in a big pond when making steel. No matter what is done there will be countries who will not follow the rules.

    avatarNicholas Hibbard2020-1-24 6:43:55Reply

  • 9

    Thank you for your comment, Mr Hibbard. The steel industry is not the largest emitter of carbon emissions, but we take our responsibility to reduce our carbon emissions and our environmental impact more broadly very seriously. It is not only Greta and other activists who are asking that we do and are seen to do this, but our customers too. We as an industry need to respond accordingly. Best wishes.

    avatarEdwin Basson2020-1-27 11:11:10Reply

  • 10

    Thank you for the article. We are very interested in the following statement: "worldsteel’s Sustainability Reporting Expert Group has developed a matrix for our 30 most important material inputs and their associated sustainability risks depending on where they are sourced from." Can you say what they have determined with regard to the sustainability risks of individual input materials and how, where applicable, scrap metal has been rated? We would be very thankful for some feedback.

    avatarNicole Klose2020-1-30 14:16:50Reply

  • 11

    Thank you for your comment, Ms Klose. The matrix lists every country in the world with and rates which of the 30 material inputs have issues where. For example, there are child labour risks associated with charcoal production in Brazil, where charcoal is sometimes used as a substitute for coke. You will see in chapter 6.2 in the sustainability reports of the Brazilian Steel Institute that they and the individual steel producers in Brazil do a lot of work in this area to show to the outside world that they source their charcoal responsibly in full compliance with Brazilian law. The risks with each material, including scrap, are different depending on the country. Best wishes.

    avatarEdwin Basson2020-1-31 16:01:26Reply

  • 12

    Nice and informative read. Personally, I feel at least for India, the priority should be oriented more towards the reduction of specific energy consumption per tonne of crude steel. The collateral advantage of course is lower CO2 emissions. Management of solid waste is another area of concern for the Indian steel industry. More next time. Good work, Edwin.

    avatarTAPAN KUMAR CHAKRAVARTY2020-3-13 16:25:19Reply

  • 13

    Thank you for your comment, Mr Chakravarty. You are quite right to say that process efficiency gains, including energy efficiency gains, provide important benefits with respect to carbon emissions. Improvement measures can include energy recovery from solid and gas streams, coke dry-quenching and many others. On your waste management point, I think you will find our position paper on co-products of interest. Best wishes.

    avatarEdwin Basson2020-3-23 13:06:23Reply